By Ilya Prigogine
A part of a sequence dedicated to assisting the reader receive basic information regarding a wide selection of issues in chemical physics. Its target is to offer finished analyses of topics of curiosity and to inspire the expression of person issues of view.
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Additional info for Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.70 Part 1, Evolution of Size Effects in Chemical Dynamics (Wiley 1988)
Based on the conventional crystal growth method, two major modifications have been made: multi-crucible configuration and zone leveling. These successful developments in the crystal growth techniques have led to the cost-effective manufacture of large PMN–PT crystals. The technical progresses that have been made during the crystal-growth investigations include: (1) the understanding of the reason for platinum crucible corrosion by lead-containing melt and knowing how to reduce the leakages during crystal growth; (2) the optimization of the furnace structure and growth parameters to increase the crystal perfection; and (3) the <001> seeding method that significantly improves the property uniformity of the (001) crystal wafer.
C. 1 Background Continual development in acoustic transduction devices has been made since the end of World War II. This progress came about largely due to the availability of improved materials. The example of PZT (lead zirconate titanate) piezoelectric ceramics is well known. Recently, progress in the growth and characterization of PMN–PT (lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate)-based piezoelectric crystals has promoted the development of the next generation of acoustic transduction devices. The recent shift in focus from blue water to littoral operations for the US Navy has placed additional requirements on sonar systems.
To explore the maximum value of d36 in a rotated coordinate system, the representation surface of the d36 was calculated (Fig. 15). The maximum d36 (±2600 pC/N) was obtained in the direction of θ of 0° and ϕ of ±45° (zxt ±45°) or ±225°. 15 (a) Three-dimensional plot of the piezoelectric representation surface of the d36 for a PMN–PT crystal with mm2 symmetric multidomain. (b) Cross-section of the piezoelectric representation surface in the (011) plane. WPNL2204 30 Handbook of dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials Thus, the maximum amplitude of d36 equals ±(d32–d31) at ϕ = ±45° or ±225°, which is the sum of the absolute values of d31 and d32.
Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.70 Part 1, Evolution of Size Effects in Chemical Dynamics (Wiley 1988) by Ilya Prigogine