Download e-book for iPad: An Environmental History of Medieval Europe by Richard Hoffmann

By Richard Hoffmann

ISBN-10: 0521876966

ISBN-13: 9780521876964

Because the first actual ebook of its sort, An Environmental background of Medieval Europe offers a hugely unique survey of medieval kinfolk with the flora and fauna. enticing with the interdisciplinary company of environmental historical past, it examines the best way average forces affected humans, how humans replaced their atmosphere, and the way they considered the area round them. Exploring key issues in medieval heritage - together with the decline of Rome, spiritual doctrine, and the lengthy fourteenth century - Hoffmann attracts clean conclusions approximately enduring questions concerning agrarian economies, tenurial rights, know-how and urbanization. Revealing the importance of the wildlife on occasions formerly considered simply human, the booklet explores matters together with the remedy of animals, sustainability, epidemic sickness and weather swap, and by means of introducing medieval heritage within the context of social ecology, brings the wildlife into historiography as an agent and item of historical past itself.

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Extra resources for An Environmental History of Medieval Europe

Sample text

During 3500–2600BCE Mediterranean conditions became more arid, especially with warmer 26 Long no wilderness and drier summers. 4000–600BCE) was cooler and drier, but punctuated by century-scale wet spells. Two of the seven readvances that Alpine glaciers made before Roman times occurred during the late SubBoreal. 200BCE to 200CE as the ‘Roman Climatic Optimum’. By then the modern Sahara desert had fully replaced a hitherto humid landscape south of the Mediterranean. 1). Distinctions between and seasonal variation within these regions established basic conditions of life for plants, animals, and humans in classical and medieval times, as they still do today.

The total biological productivity of agroecosystems is always less than that of intact natural systems, but a greater proportion is concentrated in the intended crop. The energy stored there is, in turn, ‘exported’ to human consumption, so agroecosystems require, over time, large subsidies of energy and plant 34 Long no wilderness nutrients. Risks to stability and sustainability are inherent; the key question is how societies handled them. Mediterranean Europe acquired its Neolithic agricultural complex from southwestern Asia during the sixth and fifth millennia BCE.

By then the modern Sahara desert had fully replaced a hitherto humid landscape south of the Mediterranean. 1). Distinctions between and seasonal variation within these regions established basic conditions of life for plants, animals, and humans in classical and medieval times, as they still do today. Imperial Roman soldiers and medieval Italian wool merchants alike complained of the cold and damp British Isles, whose residents now look eagerly forward to holidays on warm, dry Mediterranean shores.

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An Environmental History of Medieval Europe by Richard Hoffmann


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